Vacuum Belt Filter with Rubber Conveyor Belt

Special design form of a belt filter. A vacuum belt filter with rubber conveyor belt works fully continuously. The filter medium is carried by a continuous rubber conveyor belt underneath serving for the transport function as well as for mechanical stability. The belt has filtrate run-off grooves diagonally to the centerline and drilled wholes for the drainage of filtrate by suction. Vacuum belt filters with rubber conveyor belts cannot be employed in all fields without limitations, because frequently suspensions are not compatible with rubber, especially in the chemical industry. For this reason other belt filters have been designed, such as the belt filter with reversing vacuum trays or the continuously working tray belt filter.

Vacuum Filter

Discontinuously or continuously working class of cake filters that drain filtrate with underpressure applied in the filter cell on the underside side of the filter medium.


A leaf filter patented by E. Vallez in 1916 consisting of a horizontal vessel with round filter leaves mounted vertically on a common hollow shaft. The shaft with the filter leafs rotates slowly during the cleaning and the cake is removed with spray nozzles, i.e. in wet manner. The Vallez-filter was the first pressure leaf filter suitable to be cleaned in closed condition.

Van-der-Waals Forces

are bonding forces between atoms and molecules that are not based on a complete or even partial electron transition. They result from interactions between fluctuating electrical dipoles. During the coagulation of particles Van-der-Waals forces can come into play only if the electrostatic repulsion between the particles is small enough.


Horizontally arranged tube filter press with press membrane.

Vertical Pendulum Filter Centrifuge

Discontinuously working filter centrifuge, whose perforated drum can oscillate freely on a top-mounted, vertically rotating shaft in a solid housing. Self-centering is forced by rotation. The rotating shaft is mounted on an appropriate frame or bridge frame. Vertical pendulum filter centrifuges are conceived for bottom discharge and mainly used in the sugar industry for separating and washing crystalline sugar. The cake is discharged with peeler knives or a sharp edge of the drum where the solids cake breaks off and falls out of the drum bottom.

Vibrating Screen

Rectangular sieve, which is oscillated by a vibrating motor. The moist feed material is charged onto the narrow front side and simultaneously transported and demoistured by the sieve movement. Vibrating screens are typically employed for a largescale sand demoisturing. The processing can be influenced by changing the sieve slope, and the frequency and amplitude of the vibration.

Vibration Absorption Plate

Massive steel or concrete plate, which is attached for instance under horizontal peeler centrifuges in order to increase their total weight for vibration dampening. The complete aggregate of centrifuge and vibrating absorption plate is mounted again on spring elements which normally neutralize the oscillations transmitted into the foundation.

Vibration Damper

Spring elements often attached under centrifuges to shield the foundation from the vibrations generated by the operation.

Vibrational Density
Bulk Density
Vibratory Centrifuge

Continuously working filter centrifuge with a cantilevered filter drum, which is enlarged conically to the outside. The suspension is added at the bottom center of the cone and is conveyed by coaxially superimposed oscillations to the outer edge of the cone, where the demoistured solids are discharged. Vibratory centrifuges have a similar field of application as vibrating screens; they are well suited for easy to demoisture materials at high suspension concentration and large flow rates. They are built with drum diameters of approx. 0.5÷1.5 m, operated with C-values in the region of 60÷150, and have a throughput of up to 350m.t./hr.


Viscousness of a fluid expressed as either dynamic viscosity or kinematic viscosity.

Void Ratio

The void ratio e is defined as the void volume VV divided by the solids volume Vs of a bulk. The void ratio is related to porosity.

Volume Concentration
Solids Content
Vortex Finder

A pipe, immersed from above into the center of a hydrocyclone, through which the main portion of the suspension liquid is discharged. All particles smaller than the cut-size are also carried by the secondary vortex out of the cyclone.

Vortex Flow
Potential Vortex

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